To Disclose or Not to Disclose Climate-Change Risk in Form 10-K – Materiality and Cost of Equity

We examine the relation between managers’ decisions whether to disclose climate-change risk (CCR) in Form 10-K and firm risk. Ambiguity about the materiality of CCR and the SEC’s inconsistent enforcement of CCR disclosures cause uncertainty about whether disclosing CCR is mandatory or voluntary. We hand-collect data over a seven-year period from about 3,000 Form 10-K [...]